Teeth: Function, Structure, and Diseases


Those who do not care for their teeth properly can develop tooth decay or periodontal disease. Thoroughly brush your teeth to keep you healthy. Sometimes the dentist has to intervene anyway!

Gleaming white teeth can be enchanting – in contrast to crooked, yellowish teeth. For the teeth to grow straight, many children have to wear braces. Adults should take good care of their teeth by brushing their teeth several times a day, flossing, and possibly using a brush between the teeth. To counteract dental problems in good time, it is advisable to have the dentition checked regularly by the dentist.

The function of the teeth

If an adult’s dentition is complete and the wisdom teeth have formed, it will contain 32 teeth. Their main purpose is to chop up the food. In the front of the jaw, there are four incisors, which, thanks to their sharp edges, are particularly good at biting off food, for example, a piece of bread. To the left and right of it sits a canine tooth that fixes the bitten bun in the mouth with its special shape.

If the snack is in the palate, the small molars, the premolars, are in use. They chop up the food between their hollows and humps. The large back teeth, the molars, refine this process. It creates a kind of pulp that we can swallow. The wisdom teeth grow up in the rearmost part of the jaw – but not in every human being.

Dentists name the individual teeth according to an internationally standardized system. You divide the upper and lower jaw into semicircles and these again into quadrants. Each tooth is given two digits that allow it to be clearly assigned.

Structure of the tooth

The tooth consists of a crown, neck, and root. The crown is the visible part, at the neck of the tooth, the tooth disappears under the gums. The root is anchored in the jaw. The part that directly surrounds the tooth from the level of the gums is the tooth-holding apparatus.

However, The outermost layer of the tooth is the enamel – the hardest substance in our body. It is mainly made up of calcium salt. Acids damage the enamel. They occur, for example, when you eat something sugary. Bacteria that live in the mouth feed on sugar and release acids when it is used.

Anatomy of teeth
Anatomy of teeth

The layer under the enamel is refer as the dentin. It is also mainly composed of calcium. Projections of certain cells as well as tiny nerve fibers run through the dentin and perceive stimuli such as cold or heat, but also the dental drill. The fine fibers transmit the signal to the pulp, the pulp. It is made up of nerve fibers, blood vessels, and connective tissue, among other things. The pulp supplies the tooth with nutrients, but also transmits pain stimuli to the central nervous system.

Toothache can indicate that the tooth is diseased. Many people suffer from tooth decay, others from periodontal disease or inflamed gums. Thus, It is not uncommon for the doctor to treat carious teeth by removing the diseased part and replacing it with a filling. If larger parts of the tooth affect somehow, a denture may be necessary.




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